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Introduction to Health Care Technology Assessment

Basics of Health Care Technology Assessment provided by National Information Center on Health Services Research and Health Care Technology (NICHSR).

Table of Contents
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
INTRODUCTION
Origins of Technology Assessment
Early Health Care Technology Assessment
FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS AND ISSUES
Health Care Technology Assessment
Purposes of HCTA
Basic HCTA Orientations
Scope of Health Care Technology
Material Nature
Purpose
Stage of Diffusion
Timing of Assessment
Properties and Impacts Assessed
Measuring Health Outcomes
Types of Organizations That Conduct HCTA
Expertise for Conducting HCTA
Selected Issues in HCTA
Quality of Care and HCTA
Outcomes Research and HCTA
Decentralization of HCTA
Barriers to HCTA
HCTA and Underused Technologies
TEN BASIC STEPS OF HCTA
Step One: Identify Assessment Topics
Identify Candidate Topics
Setting Assessment Priorities
Step Two: Specify the Assessment Problem
Problem Elements
Step Three: Determine Locus of Assessment
Step Four: Retrieve Available Evidence
Information and Data Sources for HCTA
Types of Sources
Gray Literature
Publication Bias
Help for Searchers
Step Five: Collect New Primary Data
Varying Responsibilities for Primary Data Collection
Methods for Primary Data Collection
Methods of Cost Analysis
RCTs Versus Observational Studies: Tradeoffs of Validity
Developments in Primary Data Collection Studies
Types of Methodological Validity
Step Six: Interpret Evidence
Classification of Studies
Grading the Evidence
Conflict of Interest and Bias
Step Seven: Synthesize Evidence
Meta-analysis
Decision Analysis
Consensus Development
Variations in Methodological Approach
Step Eight: Formulate Findings and Recommendations
Step Nine: Disseminate Findings and Recommendations
Competing for Attention
Dissemination Dimensions
Dissemination Plan
Mediating Access
Step Ten: Monitor Impact
Attributing Impact to HCTA Reports
Factors Mediating Impact
APPENDIX A. CONCEPTS IN ASSESSMENT OF DIAGNOSTIC TECHNOLOGIES
APPENDIX B. SUGGESTED READINGS IN HCTA
Origins and Evolution of Technology Assessment
Overview of HCTA
Priority Setting
Randomized Controlled Trials
HCTA of Diagnostic and Screening Technologies
Evidence in HCTA
Cost-Effectiveness and Related Economic Analyses
Meta-Analysis
Decision Analysis
Consensus Development
Health-Related Quality of Life Measures
Ethical, Legal, Social, and Political Issues
HCTA and Quality of Care
Effectiveness/Outcomes Research and HCTA
Searching the HCTA Literature
GLOSSARY
REFERENCES

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